Physical education and training, organized in motor activities that contribute to the physical growth, health, and body image of the individual (Williams, 8th ed. 1964). It develops physical, socio-emotional and intellectual skills of a person. Quality physical education ensures the ultimate development of child in getting into sports.
Thus it also helps to develop and established immune system against common diseases to disability and improves quality of life. As early as the child goes in schooling he/she developed mobility skills and without any formal signs he/she is getting involve in physical activity in any informal ways. In relation to this, specific age requirements involving in physical sports should starts as he/she is going in schooling and it may vary from the different level. In addition it is also required to have a good routinely activity from birth of child that developed a healthy body. At the early stage of child’s life sports provide fun and excitement in their life. It is the great opportunity for them in a regular healthy exercise. It teaches them to become a good sportsman and build personal health and fitness. Youth in sports, on the other hand, is the ground preparation into the better life. It provides the value and importance of teamwork, fair play, and sportsmanship. Sports developed the master of leadership as well as doing your best in all your capabilities. It teaches motivations, dedications, and perseverance not only in sports but also in facing the real battle of life. Sports help to discover new interesting activities that can be enjoyed and master in lifetime. Statistically, there’s a positive impact of kids in sports. Kids performed better and the rate of absenteeism is less because some of them are engaged in sports. Point grade and discipline rate are higher than non-athlete. The numbers of drop-outs are less and 3 times more likely to graduate (sports in grade school; www.coachjerry.com).
Physical Activity Guidelines of Children from Birth to Preadolescence Years: Guidelines are listed with corresponding age categories; infants (from birth to 12 months old), toddlers (12 to 36 months old), preschoolers (3 to 5 years old), school-age (6 to 12 years old), and adolescence. This guideline of information ensures how much time, and physical activities are appropriate in age and helps develop healthy body even during in early stage of life.
INFANTS: Daily physical activities of the infant should interact with the parents and/or caregivers for promoting the exploration of outside environment. The infant’s activity should promote movement skills in a recommended safety standard procedure. Activities are involving safe free movement in the prolonged period of time to develop muscle large movements as well for the whole body’s development. In general, the activities should focus the free-movements of the body.
TODDLERS: In comparison toddlers is much well developed than infants. Children in this stage start to misbehave and move unintentionally in destructive and dangerous ways. Parents and/or responsible person assigned should provide safe environment for their physical activities. Physical activities of toddlers should accumulate with at least 30 minutes daily. Movement skills are major part of the exercise for more complex movement tasks and serve as the building blocks for advance highly movements of the child. Early indoors and outdoors activities are also entertained to meet the requirements because toddlers are more active and energetic. They begin to explore anything strange and visible to their eye sight. As they getting older movements are speedy and disruptive. Responsible individuals must facilitate the activity to ensure the importance of each physical activity in the sustainable development of the body.
PRESCHOOLERS: The length of activities is much heavier than before. Unlike toddlers, preschoolers are started to involve in different high-complex movements of body. They must be engaged in 60 minutes of daily structures activity. They should develop competence in movement skills while meeting indoors and outdoors activities is continuous. Playing is most of their outdoor activities including other recreational games. Indoor games specifically toys and other small components. They began to pay interest in sports and usually they like to play with stuffed toys.
SCHOOL-AGE: School-age kids are very creative and they can produce new movements through imaginations. It is important to perform a 30 minutes work-out session in three to four times every other day for the development of their physical body. Kids are highly energetic, their exercise is the form of physical activities and it is important to consider it fun. Outdoors and indoors activities help kids to expand their exploration in more diverse ways. They discovered interesting ways of enjoyment thru activity especially in recreational areas. Getting involved in physical activity improves their health, and develops self-discipline.
Specific Outcomes in Different Level:
Kindergarten- discovers different locomotors movements thru variety of activities. Experience and developed non-locomotive activities until body learned to response in the variety of body movements.
Grade 1-perform specific locomotors and non-locomotors skills thru variety of activities. Demonstrate body ways to the response of object’s ways in receiving, retain and sending movements involving other peoples.
Grade 2-select and practiced specific locomotors skills. Practiced to receive, retain, and send ways of an object and perform it individually in variety of activities.
Grade 3- response and create sequence in both locomotors and non-locomotors movements. Demonstrate and performed manipulative skills of sequences individually by using other variety of movements.
Grade 4- select, refine the sequence of simple locomotor’s movements following consistent and confident skills in practice. In addition perform some combinations of basic skills using the space awareness, different body movements with effort and relationship of others until personal performance attained.
Grade 5- select and performed more challenging locomotors and non-locomotors movements consistently and confidently by using variety of body elements, effort, and relationship. Absorb challenging ways in receiving and responding to the object with control. Refine basic challenging skills in individually activities.
Grade 6 - consistently performed right sequences in locomotors and non-locomotors movements with confidence by using variety of relationships, body movements, and space awareness. Confidently demonstrate each movement individually or with others to improve personal performance. Demonstrate each activity in specific skills in more challenging gymnastic sequence.
Grade 7 – demonstrate specific skills in different ways of functional and expressive quality movements.
Grade 8 – select and performed specific skills in functional and expressive quality movements in gymnastic experiences in individually and/or with partner or in groups.
Grade 9 – apply and refined functional, and expressive movements with the combinations of basic skills in individually and/or with partner or in groups.
Grade 10 – apply the basic skills in any combinations of gymnastic experiences individually with partner or in the group. Adapt and improve skills in expressive quality.
The activities are broader and defined in sports, dance and advance body movement forms and types. Preadolescence’s activity in this stage is the ground training for sports in the future. The daily accumulation of activity should 60 minutes to several hours most of the days in weeks and include a moderate to vigorous activities. Performing this age-appropriate activity should be in continuous ways in time or weeks. Aside from this, another 15minutes involving in several bouts of activities is required. They need to involve in everyday to ensure optimal health, and performance benefits which are the ultimate designed of the activity. On the other hand, extended inactivity during day hours is highly discouraged. It is important to developed standard rules and regulations but youth rules are not always the same as professional’s rules. Preadolescence developed past mentally, emotionally and physically, sports on the same manner are the long process to catch up. Moral support and encouragements from friends, peers, and relatives are significant to attain the main goals which result into a positive improvement. Motivations from parents, on the other hand, are more encouraging to served as foundation of their children’s inspiration. It teaches them discipline, right attitude, and sportsmanship.
National Association for Sports and Physical Education (NASPE): November 14, 2006 http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/template.cfm?template=ns_active.html
Marine Military Academy: All About Youth Sports; November 15, 2006; http://www.coachjerry.com/ques58.htm
Alberta Government; Physical Education Kindergarten to Grade 12; November 15, 2006: http://www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/curriculum/bySubject/physed/phys2000.pdf